Dyslexia and its causes
 Sugns and Symptoms
 Myths about Dyslexia
 Other Specific Learning
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 Students with dyspraxia are affected by an  impairment or immaturity of the organisation of  movement, often appearing clumsy. Gross and  fine motor skills (related to balance and co-  ordination) and fine motor skills (relating to manipulation of objects) are hard to learn and difficult to retain and generalise. Writing is particularly laborious and keyboard skills difficult to acquire. Pronunciation may also be affected and people with dyspraxia may be over/ under sensitive to noise, light and touch. They may have poor awareness of body position and misread social cues in addition to those shared characteristics common to many SpLDs.


More information on dyspraxia could be obtained via:


The Dyspraxia Foundation - This is a charity founded by two parents of dyspraxic children in the United Kingdom and seeks to raise awareness about dyspraxia in children and young adults.





Dyscalculia is a learning difficulty involving the most basic aspect of arithmetical skills. The difficulty lies in the reception, comprehension, or production of quantitative and spatial information. Students with dyscalculia may have difficulty in understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers and have problems learning number facts and procedures.


These can relate to basic concepts such as telling the time, calculating prices and handling change and estimating and measuring such things as temperature and speed.


More information on dyscalculia could be obtained via:







Dysgraphia is a difficulty in writing, resulting in written work which may be illegible and inaccurately spelled. This difficulty may exist in varying degrees and does not match with either the person’s intelligence, which may be above average, or their ability to read. There is often a lack of coordination and fine motor skills.

 More information on dyscalculia could be obtained  via:





Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder


Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) exists with or without hyperactivity. In most cases people with this disorder are often off task, have particular difficulty commencing and switching tasks together with a very short attention span and high levels of distractibility. They may fail to make effective use of the feedback they receive and have weak listening skills. Those with hyperactivity may act impulsively and erratically, have difficulty foreseeing outcomes, fail to plan ahead and be noticeably restless and fidgety. Those without the hyperactive trait tend to daydream excessively, lose track of what they are doing and fail to engage in their studies unless they are highly motivated. The behaviour of people with AD(H)D can be inappropriate and unpredictable; this, together with the characteristics common to many SpLDs can present a further barrier to learning.


More information on ADHD could be obtained via:


LD Online – This website is an educational service of public television station WETA in Washington, D.C. The website features hundreds of articles on ADHD and various learning disabilities, providing information on strategies and products to support these individuals.


SPARK - SPARK is an independent, voluntary and non-profit organisation in Singapore which was founded by a group of parents whose children are diagnosed with ADHD. On this website, you would be able to find information on what is ADHD, where to seek assessment and intervention as well as home and classroom strategies.



Asperger's Syndrome


Individuals with Asperger’s syndrome (AS; sometimes known as high functioning autism) can exhibit a variety of characteristics along a range of severity. Typically it is characterised by subtle impairments in three areas of development:


  • Social interaction
  • Social communication
  • Social imagination and flexibility of thought


 Frequently, they have additional motor  coordination  problems. They may become  preoccupied with a  particular subject of interest, or  develop obsessive  routines. Students with AS  whose obsessive  interests include their subject  can be an asset.  They have a high attention to  detail, and can be  punctual, reliable and  dedicated.


 They may be overly sensitive to sounds, tastes, smells and light. The syndrome is neurologically based but does not necessarily affect intelligence.


More information on Asperger's Syndrome could be obtained via:



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