Dyslexia and its causes

 Dyslexia and its causes
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DAS is guided in its definition of Dyslexia by the Ministry of Education, Singapore in their November 2011 publication "Professional Practice Guidelines for the Psycho-educational Assessment and Placement of Students with Special Educational Needs".


Dyslexia is a type of specific learning difficulty identifiable as a developmental difficulty of language learning and cognition1. 

It is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling. Characteristic features of dyslexia are difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and processing speed. Co-occurring difficulties may be seen in aspects of language, motor co-ordination, mental calculation, concentration and personal organisation, but these are not, by themselves, markers of dyslexia2.


An appropriate literacy programme should include the following components: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension3. The literacy programme provided by DAS meets these guidelines.


1 U.S. Department of Education. (2006). Assistance to States for the education of children with disabilities and preschool grants for children with disabilities; Final rule. Retrieved on May 26, 2011 from http://idea.ed.gov/download/finalregulations.pdf


2 Rose, J. (2009). Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties. Nottingham: DCSF Publications.


3 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.



The exact cause of dyslexia is uncertain. However, research findings suggest that it might be associated to neurological differences which may tend to run in the family. These differences in the brain are likely to influence the way dyslexics think, learn and process information, and they often show weaknesses in


1. Phonological processing

2. Ability to learn the relationships between letters and sounds (phonics)

3. Ability to hold information in their short-term memory and then manipulating that information, such as working on mental arithmetic or remembering a long list of instructions

4. Word retrieval


 เครดิต : http://www.das.org.sg/about-dyslexia

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